All of your body’s cells carry specific proteins on their surfaces that help the immune system recognize them as “self.” That’s why the immune system usually doesn’t attack your body’s own tissues.
What are the cells responsible for attacking infection causing pathogens?
Killer, or cytotoxic, T-cells perform the actual destruction of infected cells. Killer T-cells protect the body from certain bacteria and viruses that have the ability to survive and even reproduce within the body’s own cells. Killer T-cells also respond to foreign tissues in the body, such as a transplanted kidney.
What fights against invading organisms?
Some types of white blood cells, called phagocytes (FAH-guh-sytes), chew up invading organisms. Others, called lymphocytes (LIM-fuh-sytes), help the body remember the invaders and destroy them. One type of phagocyte is the neutrophil (NOO-truh-fil), which fights bacteria.
How do tumors cells evade defeat the immune system?
As alluded to above, tumors can evade immune surveillance by crippling CTL functionality via production of several immune suppressive cytokines, either by the cancer cells or by the non-cancerous cells present in the tumor microenvironment, especially including immune cells and epithelial cells.
What prevents immune system from attacking own cells?
However, some T cells are not activated, in fact they are inactivated by a process called anergy or tolerance. This process helps prevent immune cells from attacking themselves and other normal cells and proteins.
What are components of immune system?
The main parts of the immune system are: white blood cells, antibodies, the complement system, the lymphatic system, the spleen, the thymus, and the bone marrow.
What are the factors of the emergence of infectious diseases?
Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10636. Six factors in the emergence of infectious diseases were elucidated in a 1992 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.
How does protozoal infection lead to chronic disease?
Pathology Protozoal infection results in tissue damage leading to disease. In chronic infections the tissue damage is often due to an immune response to the parasite and/or to host antigens as well as to changes in cytokine profiles. Alternatively, it may be due to toxic protozoal products and/or to mechanical damage.
How are microbes a threat to human health?
Microbes that are pathogenic to the animals and plants on which we depend for survival, for example, are an indirect threat to human health. Other microbes live in apparent harmony with animals but can be pathogenic for humans, as evidenced by the number of emerging zoonotic diseases that are transmitted to humans from animals.
How does immunosuppression affect the immune system of the host?
Immunosuppression:Parasitic protozoan infections generally produce some degree of host immunosuppression. This reduced immune response may delay detection of antigenic variants. It may also reduce the ability of the immune system to inhibit the growth of and/or to kill the parasites.